Carbohydrates, the macronutrients that glycaemic index of a food is related to the rate at which a food affects the blood sugar levels of humans.
Carbohydrates in food are the prime source of energy for human beings, and are present in different forms. Based on the molecular size, carbohydrates can be classified as complex carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are small molecules such as glucose, fructose, lactose and sucrose. Complex carbohydrates are polymeric units of simple sugars, making it a big molecule, examples of complex carbohydrates are dietary fibre, glycogen, starch and pectin. In food sources, a combination of both simple as well as complex sugars is present in the food. Simple sugars are absorbed in the blood at a faster pace when compared to complex sugars, as complex sugars have to be broken down into simple sugars in order to be absorbed in the body. Hence, foods that are rich in complex sugars increase the blood sugar level at a very slow rate.
It is therefore important for consumers, especially those suffering from non- communicable diseases such as diabetes and obesity to know the GI of the products they are consuming in order to make a wise food choice.
DISCLAIMER: This article is not based on real time studies.